Showing posts from April, 2017


Wonder is said to be the origin of philosophy . In the early human life on this planet, when a man was struck with wonder at the natural phenomena or when he found complex and conflicting phenomena in life and was filled with discontentment at the existing order of things, it was the beginning of philosophy . While the philosophy of Vedas began in wonder, the philosophy of Gautam Buddha began in discontentment with the miserable world. In the West, the early beginning of philosophy was in wonder, while the modern Western philosophy had its origin in doubt. This wonder and doubt gave rise to several types of problems. Some examples of the philosophical problems are What is the real nature of man? What is the end of this life? What is the nature of this world in which he lives? Is there any creator of this world. These are some of the many problems taken at random, which we find agitating the human mind in every land, from the very dawn of civilization. Western philosophy has rem


Indian ethics has a special characteristic of the Ashram system. Every individual by nature passes through various stages of life. Indian thinkers correlate the stages of the individual to society. Indian thinkers prescribed duties to every stage of life. The prescribed duties contribute to social welfare and social stability. The Ashram system has four stages. Every individual passes through the stages of a Brahmachari (a student), a Grihastha (a householder), a Vanaprastha (retired), and a Sanyasin (a wandering monk.) The stage of a householder is very important for the stability of society. The individual enters into the first unit of society i.e family, by entering Grihasth ashrama. A householder enjoys the pleasures of life. At the same time, he has many responsibilities. He has to take care of his family, the guests, and other society members. The concept of Rna implies obligation and responsibility. Man is a social animal. His development is possible, because many othe


The concept of Rta is the fundamental concept in Vedic philosophy. Rta is the eternal, cosmic, and moral order. Rta represents the basic truth, harmony, or system of the universe which no one can violate. Rta is Truth or truths (Satyasya Satyam), the center of centers (Kendrasya Kendram). It is the Divine order which is designated as “Vrata” in Vedic literature. In the physical sphere, Rta represents the eternal and inviolable law of nature. Rotation of Heavenly stars, alteration of day and nights, the flow of rivers, oceans, etc. are regulated by Rta. Rta is the unity-in-difference in the cosmic order. It maintains everything in its correct place. The principal of Rta is eternal and omnipresent. It is immanent in all the creations of Cosmos. Rta is the binding principle of this cosmos, whether physical or moral. In the moral sphere, Rta is righteousness. It is the measure of morality. Those who follow the path of Rta, follow the path of Good. They are called Vratani. The path


The concept of Dharma is unique and comprehensive in Indian philosophy. The Sanskrit word ‘Dharma’ cannot be exactly translated in the English language. The word ‘Dharma’ is derived from the Sanskrit root, ‘dhr’ which means to sustain, to support, or to preserve. In Indian philosophy, the word ‘ Dharma ’ is used in various ways. In Rigveda, the word ‘ Dharma ’ stands for natural or cosmic law. The cosmic law ‘Rta’ reflects in the society as ‘Dharma’. It also stands for moral laws and moral conduct. In Chhandogya Upanishad, ‘Dharma’ stands for the performance of duties related to the stages of life that is Aashram-Dharma. In ‘Eitereya Brahman’ the word ‘Dharma’ stands for right conduct. The king is the preserver of ‘Dharma’ that prescribes a code of conduct. In Mahabharat, the word ‘Dharma’ is defined as ‘dharanat dharayate ityahu’. ‘Dharma’ is that which holds together the society. In Vaisheshika philosophy, ‘Dharma’ is that which leads to prosperity and the highe


Ethics is a branch of philosophy in western philosophy. In the Indian perspective, Ethics is coeval with philosophy. Philosophy is not just an intellectual inquiry but a way of life. Indian thinkers aim at the realization of the Ultimate Reality. Indian thinkers take a synthetic view of life. For them, there are no watertight compartments among philosophical problems. The Indians have a strong faith in the moral order that prevails in this universe. Everyone has to contribute to the universal moral order. Every individual has a role to play in this universe. Every role brings with it specified duties and responsibilities. In the Indian view, the obligation of an individual is not confined to human society only. It is extended to the whole of sentient creation. Indian philosophy holds, “Love thy neighbor as thyself and every living being is thy neighbor”. Moral philosophy in India is truly speaking the art of living a good and disciplined life. THE FEATURES OF INDIAN ETHICS


Keeps our sense of speculation and curiosity alive Philosophy keeps our sense of speculation and curiosity alive by making us aware that most of our prejudices, customs, and convictions are not rationally defensible. A man who has no tincture remains imprisoned in his common-sense prejudices and his habitual beliefs of his age or nation and convictions which have grown in him without the consent of his deliberate reason. To such a man the world appears definite, finite, obvious. Common objects arise more curiosity in him and unsuspected possibilities are rejected by him. The moment we begin to philosophize the most ordinary things we used to take for granted lead to problems to which only very incomplete answers are possible. Philosophy raises all such doubts and, though it is unable to provide definite answers to them, suggests many possibilities, thus enlarging our thoughts and freeing us from the tyranny of customs and snug beliefs. This uncertainty may be taken as the first valu